Ischemic Stroke and Epilepsy in a Patient with Tourette´s Syndrome: Association with the Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Good Response to Levetiracetam



M Seijo-Martínez1, * , J.A Mosquera-Martínez2, S Romero-Yuste2, J Cruz-Martinez2
1 Neurology Service, Hospital do Salnés, Spain
2 Rheumatology Service, Complexo Hospitalario de Pontevedra, Spain


Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
0
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 442
Abstract HTML Views: 272
PDF Downloads: 86
Total Views/Downloads: 800
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 285
Abstract HTML Views: 169
PDF Downloads: 64
Total Views/Downloads: 518



© Seijo-Martínez et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Neurology Department, Hospital do Salnés, Villagarcia de Arosa, Pontevedra 36639, Spain; E-mail: mseijom@meditex.es


Abstract

The role played by different humoral factors, including antiphospholipid antibodies, in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS) is still presently unclear. We present a patient with chronic and severe TS who, at the age of 16 years, presented an ischemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery and/or postero-inferior temporal branch of the left medial cerebral artery. A complete study was negative with the exception of a positive lupus anticoagulant. The stroke was related with the primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The stroke manifested visual abnormalities and thereafter by secondary generalized complex partial seizures. The epileptic syndrome was initially difficult to control but responded dramatically to levetiracetam. With this therapy, the manifestations of TS, especially the tics, improved. We conclude that some TS cases may present APS. In addition, levetiracetam may be useful in the management of TS. Further investigations should pursue both these facts.

Keywords: Tourette syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies, levetiracetam.