Exosomes and their Cargo as a New Avenue for Brain and Treatment of CNS-Related Diseases

Tarek Benameur1, Maria Antonietta Panaro2, Chiara Porro3, *
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, 31982, Al- Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, Bari 70125, Italy
3 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia 71121, Italy

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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Benameur et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Ospedali Riuniti, Viale L. Pinto, 1, 71100 Foggia, Italy; E-mail:


Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), which belong to nanoscale vesicles, including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, are now considered a new important tool for intercellular neuronal communication in the Central Nervous System (CNS) under physiological and pathological conditions. EVs are shed into blood, peripheral body fluids and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by a large variety of cells.

EVs can act locally on neighboring and distant cells. EVs represent the fingerprints of the originating cells and can carry a variety of molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including protein, lipids, DNA and microRNAs (miRNAs).

The most studied EVs are the exosomes because they are ubiquitous and have the capacity to transfer cell-derived components and bioactive molecules to target cells. In this minireview, we focused on cell-cell communication in CNS mediated by exosomes and their important cargo as an innovative way to treat or follow up with CNS diseases.

Keywords: Exosomes, Extracellular vesicles, Cellular communication, Biomarkers, MiRNAs, CNS.