Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion (DDFPe) Decreases Stroke Size and Improves Neurological Scores in a Permanent Occlusion Rat Stroke Model

A.T Brown, M.C Arthur, J.S Nix, J.A Montgomery, R.D Skinner, P.K Roberson, Michael Borrelli , W.C Culp*
Department of Radiology, UAMS, 4300 W. Markham St. Little Rock, AR, 72205 USA

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© Brown et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Radiology, UAMS, 4300 W. Markham St. Little Rock, AR, 72205 USA; Tel: 501-686-6910; Fax: 501-686-6910; E-mail:



Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe), given IV one hour after stroke, has been shown to greatly reduce the percent stroke volume (%SV) in rabbits. With repeated doses its effect continued for 24 hours.


Test DDFPe as neuroprotective agent in permanent occlusion rat stroke models in Sprague Dawley (SD) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) measuring both %SV and neurological assessment scores (NAS).


The male rats received either saline (control), or one or four doses (1x or 4x) of DDFPe (0.6ml/kg IV) one hour post stroke. Treatment groups were SD (n=26) (control, 1x and 4x; n=12, 7 and 7) and SHR (n=14) (control, 1x and 4x; n=7, 3 and 4). The 4x doses were given at 1.5 hour intervals. At six hours post stroke, the rats received a NAS using standard tests for balance, reflexes, and motor performance. Then rats were euthanized and brains removed for TTC evaluation of %SV.


For %SV analysis strain differences were not significant therefore strains were combined. DDFPe significantly decreased %SV in 1x and 4xDDFPe groups compared to control groups (2.59±1.81 and 0.98±0.88 vs. 9.24±6.06, p≤0.001 each; p≤0.0001 for the overall test for treatment effect). The 1x versus 4xDDFPe groups were not significantly different (p=0.40). In NAS analysis both strains showed significant improvement with 4xDDFPe therapy vs. controls, (SD: 5.00+2.45 vs. 9.36+3.56, p=0.01; SHR: 7.75+4.43 vs. 12.14+3.08, p=0.05). Differences between the 1x DDFPe group and controls were not significant (SD: 8.43+3.69; SHR: 9. 33+3.51).


DDFPe treatment provides significant neuroprotection when assessed six hours post stroke.

Keywords: Animal Model, Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion (DDFPe), Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), Neuroprotectants, Rat, Stroke..