Risk Factors for DVT/PE in Patients with Stroke and Intracranial Hemorrhage



Mark Stecker*, Kathleen Michel, Karin Antaky, Sarah Cherian, Feliks Koyfman
Winthrop University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Suite 407, Mineola, NY 11501, USA


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© Mark Stecker.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Winthrop University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Suite 407, Mineola, NY 11501, USA; Tel: 1-516-663-4771; Fax: 1-516-663-8246; E-mails : mmstecker@gmail.com; mstecker@winthrop.org


Abstract

Objective:

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE) are serious problems for patients admitted to the hospital with stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and transient ischemic attack (TIA). The purpose of this paper is to further understand the factors that place certain patients at increased risk of DVT/PE.

Methods:

At a 600 bed hospital, a retrospective analysis of data from 2613 patients admitted with a diagnosis of stroke, SAH, ICH or TIA in the time range 1/2008 through 3/2012 was carried out. The data was taken from the hospital’s Get with the Guidelines database and included 28 variables. These included initial NIH stroke scale, length of stay, heart failure, ambulatory by day 2 after admission, altered mental status,and renal failure among others. Multiple analyses were carried out to determine whether there were univariable or multivariable effects of any of the factors on the risk for DVT/PE.

Results:

The risk of DVT/PE was highest in patients with SAH and ICH and smallest with TIA. Multivariable analyses were performed and revealed only altered level of consciousness or heart failure as significant risks for DVT/PE. With the limited available data, administration of subcutaneous heparin or other chemoprophylaxis did not reduce the risk of DVT/PE.

Conclusion:

Although many of the variables used to describe the stroke patient are correlated, in multivariable analyses only heart failure and altered level of consciousness were important risk factors for DVT/PE. The risk of DVT/PE was 7 fold greater in patients in patients with both of these risk factors.

Keywords:: Stroke, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, risk factors.