Stroke and Stroke-like Episodes in Muscle Disease



Josef Finsterer*
Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Danube University Krems, Austria


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© Josef Finsterer; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Postfach 20 1180 Vienna, Austria, Europe; Tel: +43-1-71165-92085; Fax: +43-1-4781711; E-mail: fifigs1@yahoo.de


Abstract

Background:

Though not obvious at a first glance, myopathies may be associated with ischemic stroke. Stroke-like episodes resemble ischemic stroke only to some extent but are a unique feature of certain mitochondrial disorders with a pathogenesis at variance from that of ischemic stroke. Only limited data are available about ischemic stroke in pri-mary myopathies and the management of stroke-like episodes in mitochondrial disorders. This review aims to summarize and discuss current knowledge about stroke in myopathies and to delineate stroke-like episodes from ischemic stroke.

Methods:

Literature review via PubMED using the search terms “stroke”, “cerebrovascular”, “ischemic event”, “stroke-like episode”, “stroke-mimic”, “mitochondrial disorder”.

Results:

Stroke in myopathies is most frequently cardioembolic due to atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, dilated cardio-myopathy, or left-ventricular hypertrabeculation (noncompaction). The second most frequent cause of stroke in myopathies is angiopathy from atherosclerosis or vasculitis, which may be a feature of inflammatory myopathies. Athero-sclerosis may either result from classical risk factors, such as diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlpidemia, or smoking, associated with muscle disease, or may be an inherent feature of a mitochondrial disorder. In case of severe heart failure from cardiomyopathy as a manifestation of muscle disease low flow infarcts may occur. Thrombophilic stroke has been described in polymyositis and dermatomyositis in association with anti-phospholipid syndrome. Stroke-like episodes occur particularly in mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-likeepisode syndrome but rarely also in Leigh-syndrome and other mitochondrial disorders. Stroke-like episodes are at variance from ischemic stroke, pathogenically, clinically and on imaging. They may be the manifestation of a vascular, metabolic or epileptic process and present with predominantly vasogenic but also cytotoxic edema on MRI. Differentiation between ischemic stroke and stroke-like episodes is essential in terms of management and prognosis. Management of ischemic stroke in patients with myopathy is not at variance from the treatment of ischemic stroke in non-myopathic patients. There is no standardized treatment of stroke-like episodes but there is increasing evidence that these patients profit from the administration of L-arginine and conse-quent antiepileptic treatment if associated with seizure activity.

Conclusions:

Ischemic stroke may be a complication of myopathy and needs to be delineated from stroke-like episodes, which are unique to mitochondrial disorders, particularly mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-likeepisode syndrome. Ischemic stroke in myopathies is most frequently cardioembolic and treatment is not at variance from non-myopathic ischemic stroke. Treatment of stroke-like episodes is not standardized but seems to respond to L-arginine and adequate antiepileptic treatment.

Keywords: Cerebral infarction, ischemic stroke, genetics, cardiomyopathy, noncompaction, atrial fibrillation, neuromuscular disorder, MELAS-syndrome, stroke-like episode.