Cervical Artery Dissection: Emerging Risk Factors



S Micheli*, 1, M Paciaroni2, F Corea3, G Agnelli2, M Zampolini3, V Caso2
1 Department of Rehabilitation, SC Riabilitazione Intensiva Neuromotoria, Trevi, Italy
2 Stroke Unit and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy
3 Department of Rehabilitation, UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni Acquisite, Ospedale San Giovanni, Foligno, Italy


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© Micheli et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Rehabilitation, SC Riabilitazione Intensiva Neuromotoria, P.zza Garibaldi, Trevi (PG), Italy; Tel/Fax: +39.0742.339816; E-mail: sarmicheli@gmail.com


Abstract

Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan’s syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations.

Keywords: Cervical artery dissection, emerging risk factors, aetiology of stroke.