The Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in Parkinson’s Disease

Spiridon Papapetropoulos*, 1, 2, Kostantinos Glynos3, Zongmin Zhou3, Stylianos E Orfanos3, Georgia Mitsi4, Andreas Papapetropoulos5
1 Department of Neurology University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, USA
2 Department of Neurology, Regional University Hospital of Patras, Greece
3 George P. Livanos-Marianthi Simou Laboratories, Department of Critical Care and Pulmonary Services, Evangelismos Hospital, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
4 University of Miami/Humana Health Research Services, USA
5 Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 3121
Abstract HTML Views: 1861
PDF Downloads: 688
Total Views/Downloads: 5670
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1254
Abstract HTML Views: 1139
PDF Downloads: 469
Total Views/Downloads: 2862

Creative Commons License
© Papapetropoulos et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Neurology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Clinical Research Building 1120 N.W. 14th Street, 13th Floor Room 1349, Miami, FL 33136, USA; Tel: (+1)(305) 243-8461/(+1)(305) 243-9620; Fax: (+1)(305) 243-3321; E-mail:


Parkinson’s disease (PDI is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be implicated to some extent. The ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been associated with common neurodegenerative disorders that share similar clinical and neuropathological features with PD (Alzheimer’s disease). In this study we set out to examine the role of the ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

We conducted a case-control association study among 77 PD patients and 50 non-PD controls from Greece.

The genotype frequencies for II, ID, and DD were 39, 48, and 13%, respectively, in the PD group and 32, 50, and 18% in the control group. Although the DD frequency was higher in the case group statistical significance was not reached.

We conclude that although disease modifying effects cannot be excluded, the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism is unlikely to be an important determinant of susceptibility to PD in this population.

Keywords: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, ACE, Polymorphism, Insertion-deletion, Parkinson’s disease, Association study.