Microbial Risk Factors of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases: Potential Therapeutical Options



Mohammed Abdalla Abbasa, b, Albrecht Guentherc, Sebastiano Galantuccia, Gharib Fawia, Giancarlo Comib, Joseph Kwand, Francesco Coreab, *
a Neurology Department, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
b Istituto di Neurologia Sperimentale (INSPE), Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) San Raffaele, Milano, Neurologia, Dimer, Via Olgettina, 48, 20132, Milano, Italy
c Department of Neurology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena, Germany
d Department of Medicine for the Elderly, Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Castle Lane East, Bournemouth, BH7 7DW, UK


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© Abbas et al; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/), which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Istituto di Neurologia Sperimentale (INSPE), Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) San Raffaele, Milano, Neurologia, Dimer, Via Olgettina, 48, 20132, Milano, Italy; E-mail: corea.francesco@hsr.it


Abstract

Infection and inflammation may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This hypothesis is supported by an increasing number of reports on the interaction between chronic infection, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Assessment of serological and inflammatory markers of infection may be useful adjuncts in identifying those patients who are at a higher risk of developing vascular events, and in whom more aggressive treatments might be warranted.

Keywords: Stroke, risk factors, infection, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus, odontopathogens, atherosclerosis, therapy, antibiotics.