RESEARCH ARTICLE


Changes in Immunological Parameters and Neurotrophic Factors in Patients with Compression, Post-traumatic Non-gunshot and Gunshot Neuropathies and Plexopathies



Olena Borodai1, 2, *, Tetyana Litovchenko1, Olena Klimova3, Larisa Drozdova3
1 Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine
2 Military Medical Clinical Center, Kharkiv, Ukraine
3 State Institution “Institute of General and Urgent Surgery NAMS of Ukraine,” Kharkiv, Ukraine


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Borodai et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; E-mail: dr.oborodai@gmail.com


Abstract

Introduction:

Chronic pain, which usually occurs after traumatic damage to nerves and plexuses, is an additional burden on the patient's quality of life, which is already impaired due to motor, sensory and autonomic deficits. The aim is to study and clarify changes in immunological parameters and neurotrophic factors in patients with compression, post-traumatic non-gunshot and gunshot neuropathies and plexopathies.

Materials and Methods:

The study included 93 men aged 21 to 59 with neuropathy and plexopathy of traumatic and non-traumatic origin, divided into 3 groups. Patients underwent clinical and neurological examination starting at the onset of clinical manifestations and in the dynamics, electromyography, and ultrasound. The immunological examination was performed from 12 to 24 months, starting at the onset of the disease.

Results:

Differences between the study groups in the concentration of circulating immune complexes and lymphocytotoxicity and decrease in CD4 + T lymphocytes were statistically significant. In the NBT-test results, which characterize the difference between spontaneous and zymosan-stimulated oxygen-dependent phagocytosis, it was found that the cells oxidized granules of nitroblue tetrazolium dye with different degrees of intensity, depending on the regenerative capacity of enzymes. We found an increase in the quantitative content of the beta-NGF 303 [35.2; 504.5] pg/ml in the blood of patients of group III with post-traumatic gunshot neuropathies and plexopathies accompanied by chronic neuropathic pain syndrome at a statistically significant level (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.0181).

Conclusion:

The study showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) violations of the regulatory link of immune system in patients with post-traumatic gunshot neuropathies and plexopathies, increased circulating immune complexes level, disorders of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent phagocytosis, reduced enzymatic regenerative capacity, significant increase in beta-NGF, Thus, as a result of the study, we found statistically significant (p<0.05) violations of the regulatory link of immune system in patients with post-traumatic gunshot neuropathies and plexopathies, increased circulating immune complexes level, disorders of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent phagocytosis, reduced enzymatic regenerative capacity, significant increase in beta-NGF 303 [35.2; 504.5] pg / ml, indicating the ongoing process of chronic inflammation, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and sensory fibers, which leads to the maintenance and severity of chronic neuropathic pain even after 12 months or more since the injury with damage to nerves and plexuses of the limbs.

Keywords: Post-traumatic neuropathies and plexopathies, Chronic neuropathic pain, Immunological parameters, Phagocytosis, Lymphocytotoxicity, Neurotrophins.