An Emerging Natural History in the Development, Mechanisms and Worldwide Prevalence of Major Mental Disorders



Nicholas Pediaditakis*
Department of Psychiatric Medicine, ECU Brody School of Medicine,Greenville, NC, USA


Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
0
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 710
Abstract HTML Views: 350
PDF Downloads: 149
ePub Downloads: 110
Total Views/Downloads: 1319
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 434
Abstract HTML Views: 204
PDF Downloads: 100
ePub Downloads: 84
Total Views/Downloads: 822



© Nicholas Pediaditakis; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychiatric Medicine, ECU Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC, USA; Tel: (+919) 418-2278; Fax: (919) 787-0710; E-mails: nicholaspediaditakis@gmail.com, nichols@bellsouth.net


Abstract

Conciliating recent findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, and clinical observations together point to new understandings regarding the mechanism, development and the persistent worldwide prevalence of major mental disorders (MMDs), which should be considered the result of an evolutionary downside trade off. Temperamental/trait variability, by facilitating choices for individual and group responses, confers robustness flexibility and resilience crucial to success of our species. Extreme temperamental variants, originating evolutionarily from the asocial aspect of human nature, also constitute the premorbid personality of the disorders. The latter create vulnerable individuals out of whom some will develop MMDs but at much higher rate to that of the general population. Significantly, similar temperamental “lopsidedness” enables many of these vulnerable individuals, if intelligent, tenacious, and curious, to be creative and contribute to our survival while some may also develop MMDs. All have a common neural-developmental origin and share characteristics in their clinical expression and pharmacological responses also expressed as mixed syndromes or alternating ones over time. Over-pruning of synaptic neurons may be considered the trigger of such occurrences or conversely, the failure to prevent them in spite of it. The symptoms of the major mental disorders are made up of antithetical substitutes as an expression of a disturbed over-all synchronizing property of brain function for all higher faculties previously unconsidered in their modeling. The concomitant presence of psychosis is a generic common occurrence.

Keywords: Major mental disorders, Schizophrenia, Bipolar affective disorders, Obssesive compulsive disorders, Anxieties, Psychopathology, Molecular genetics, Evolutionary biology.