Enhanced Phosphorylation of Bax and Its Translocation into Mitochondria in the Brains of Individuals Affiliated with Alzheimer’s Disease
L.E. Henderson1, M.A. Abdelmegeed1, S.H. Yoo1, S.G. Rhee2, X. Zhu3, M.A. Smith3, R.Q. Nguyen4, G. Perry4, *, B.J. Song1, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2017
First Page: 48
Last Page: 58
Publisher Id: TONEUJ-11-48
Article History:Received Date: 11/07/2017
Revision Received Date: 05/09/2017
Acceptance Date: 10/10/2017
Electronic publication date: 16/11/2017
Collection year: 2017
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Despite increased neuronal death, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles observed in patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the detailed mechanism of cell death in AD is still poorly understood.
We hypothesized that p38 kinase activates and then phosphorylates Bax, leading to its translocation to mitochondria in AD brains compared to controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of p38 kinase in phosphorylation and sub-cellular localization of pro-apoptotic Bax in the frontal cortex of the brains from AD and control subjects. Increased oxidative stress in AD individuals compared to control was evaluated by measuring the levels of carbonylated proteins and oxidized peroxiredoxin, an antioxidant enzyme. The relative amounts of p38 kinase and phospho-Bax in mitochondria in AD brains and controls were determined by immunoblot analysis using the respective antibody against each protein following immunoprecipitation.
Our results showed that the levels of oxidized peroxiredoxin-SO3 and carbonylated proteins are significantly elevated in AD brains compared to controls, demonstrating the increased oxidative stress.
The amount of phospho-p38 kinase is increased in AD brains and the activated p38 kinase appears to phosphorylate Thr residue(s) of Bax, which leads to its mitochondrial translocation, contributing to apoptosis and ultimately, neurodegeneration.